That could be a possibility. And it is also possible that the browser is blocking the request altogether since it is not a secure certificate.
The AuthenticateService line you have highlighted is definitely not in the login mechanism of Canvas. Same goes for the common,js, util.js and stats.js. This seems like the sceupts loaded by Chrome when an insecure connections is detected.
You can try this out:
The main thing would be to be able to make Chrome or a browser open the site, without it being flagged as insecure.
Otherwise, if I remember correctly, SSO was configured successfully on that server already with an http only connection.
There are also some sites that offers temporary SSL Certificate signing that might help on this one.
Is the https a necessary setup? If so, can you get a valid certificate to use instead?
Check also if it might be easier to configure IE to accept self signed certificate, and then try to use Canvas there instead.